AbstractTitanium diboride-silicon composite was fabricated by innovative method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) from the mixtures of titanium, magnesium dodecaboride and silicon in constant pressure reactor in argon atmosphere at 0.5-2 MPa pressure. The key influence of initial mixture composition, sample geometry and external gas pressure on the combustion features, products phases and microstructure characteristics were examined. Direct fabrication of fully dense TiB2-(30-44)wt.%Si composite with improved physico-mechanical properties was performed using spark plasma sintering (SPS) at a relatively low temperatures (1250-1350 °C) with a dwelling time of 3 min at pressure of 50 MPa. Erosive wear behavior of the composites was studied both at room and elevated temperatures. The highest erosion resistance against silica particles impact was demonstrated by composite with the lowest silicon content.