Submission of a manuscript to the journal is contingent upon the statement by all the authors that: i) the reported work has not received prior publication and that no portion of this or any other closely related work is under consideration for publication elsewhere in any medium, including electronic journals, computer databases, and publicly accessible preprint websites; ii) its publication is approved by all authors and by the responsible authorities where the work has been carried out, and iii) if accepted will not be published elsewhere in any form without the written consent of the copyright holder.
In publishing only original research, the Editorial Board is committed to deterring plagiarism, including self-plagiarism by using updated softwares to check all submitted manuscripts for similarity to published material.
Inquiries regarding the suitability of an abstract or manuscript for the journal will not be considered prior to submission of the complete manuscript file.
Conflict of Interest Disclosure
During the submission process, the corresponding author must provide on behalf of all authors of the manuscript a statement describing any financial conflicts of interest or lack thereof. The statement should describe all potential sources of bias, including affiliations, funding sources, and financial or management relationships, that may constitute conflicts of interest.
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research as open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND licence. This implies that articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public and may be subject to any non commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author/s and source are credited and provided the article is not altered or modified in any part. An open access paper will be subjected to the same peer-review process adopted for normal papers.
An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research founder or institution. The open access publication fee for this journal is 1,100 EUR excluding taxes.
Original research papers covering any relevant scientific or technical aspects of manufacturing, industrialization and application.
Full length articles usually commissioned by the Editorial Board that provide: a critical survey on a still developing field; new requirements in technology coming from changes in demand and societal needs; insights for prospective new directions.
Short but complete description of results of new technical achievements for which Authors feel appropriate an urgent presentation to the international readership.
Reports (normally not indexed)
Analyses of market trends, round robin and standardisation activities, cost competitiveness analysis and educational policies.
All articles shall be submitted online. The online submission system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable Word files are required to typeset your article for final publication. All evaluating steps of submitted articles, including revisions and notifications of the Editor’s decisions, is made through the system.
Good English language is a binding condition for the paper to be submitted to the peer-review process. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to have their paper fully reviewed by an appropriate English language editing agency.
In general, follow this order when you are preparing a manuscript: title, authors, affiliations, email of corresponding author, abstract, keywords, main text including tables, acknowledgements, references, figures captions, figures, and appendix (if applicable).
Title. The title should accurately, clearly, and concisely reflect the emphasis and content of the paper. Acronyms and abbreviations are not permitted in manuscript titles, unless they are broadly familiar to readers in all disciplines covered by the journal.
Authors. Include as co-authors all those who have made substantial contributions to the work. Use first names, initials, and surnames (e.g., John R. Smith), instead of initials with surnames (e.g., J. R. Smith), because this causes indexing and retrieval difficulties and interferes with unique identification of an author. Do not include professional or official titles or academic degrees. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front of the appropriate address. Addition or deletion of an author or authors after submission of the manuscript requires justification from the corresponding author and is subject to approval by the Editor. Please note that authorship changes are not allowed after the paper is accepted.
Corresponding author. One corresponding Author has to be designated to whom correspondence regarding the manuscript shall be addressed. Please provide e mail and telephone number (with country and area code).
Affiliations. An author may be affiliated to more than one institution but it is recommended to put first the institution where the work was conducted. When all the co-authors share the same affiliation, write it only once.
Abstract. All manuscripts must contain an abstract, which should summarize the purpose of the work, the most significant results, and the conclusions. The abstract should be brief and shown in one paragraph. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. No references shall be included. Also, non-standard or unknown abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Keywords. Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of six keywords that best describe the focus and feature of the work.
Abbreviations. Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field as a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Acknowledgments. This section is not numbered and shall be collated at the end of the article before the references. Use a singular heading even in the case of multiple acknowledgments.
Founding sources. Please use the following standard way:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Research Council (grant numbers xxxx, yyyy), Rome, Italy;
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA (grant number wwww); and the Commission of European Community (grant number zzzz).
Units. The international system of units (SI) has to be used. If other units are used, their equivalent in SI is to be given. Temperature shall be given in degrees Celsius.
Equations. Please submit equations as editable text and not as images. In principle variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Any equations shall be numbered consecutively.
Footnotes. Shall be used only if strictly needed an numbered consecutively throughout the article. Please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the paper. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
Figures. These have to be numbered according to their sequence in the text. Caption to each Figure is mandatory. The size of the figures shall be close to the desired dimensions of the published version. Submit each figure as a separate file with adequate resolution. Colour figures are preferred, no charge will be applied.
Tables. Tables have to be submitted as editable text (not as images) placed either in the appropriate place in the text or in separate pages at the end of the text and numbered consecutively according to their appearance in the text. Any table note shall be placed below the table body whereas table captions shall be placed at the top of the table. Use of vertical rules and shading in table cells has to be avoided.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Reference to a web site
Full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
Reference to a dataset
If relevant datasets are cited in the text these are to be added before the Reference List. The following elements shall be included: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, year, and global persistent identifier.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Text. References shall be indicated by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
Example: '..... as reported [7,8]. Bradshaw et al.  demonstrated that ....'
List. Number in square brackets the references in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a paper in a journal:
 N. al Nasiri, N. Patra, D.D. Jayaseelan, W.E. Lee, Water vapour corrosion of rare earth monosilicates for environmental barrier coating applications, Ceram. Int. 43 (2017) 7393-7400
Reference to a book:
 W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, fourth ed., Longman, New York, 2000.
Reference to an edited book:
 P. Vincenzini Ed., Energy and Ceramics, Elsevier Science Publishers, UK, 1980
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
 G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 281-284
Reference to a website:
 Cancer Research UK, Cancer statistics reports for the UK. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/, 2003 (accessed 13 March 2003).
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset]  M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest, Mendeley Data, v1, 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Reference to a patent:
 G. Bradli, M. Dick (1978). Alternating current fed power supply, U.S. Patent 4084217, USA
Reference to a thesis or dissertation:
 N. Kawasaki (1993), Parametric study of thermal and chemical nonequilibrium nozze flow, M.S. Thesis, Dept. Electron. Eng., Osaka Univ., Osaka, Japan
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
Please use Word for the text of your paper
Use double spacing and wide (3 cm) margin. Avoid full justification, i.e. do not use a constant right-hand margin. Tables and figure legends have to be presented on separate pages at the end of the paper. All pages have to be numbered.
The article shall be divided in clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections shall be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2…), 1.2, etc. The abstract shall not be numbered. Any subsection may be given a brief heading to appear on its own separate line.
Main text Divide the manuscript into clearly defined and numbered sections including introduction, material and methods, theory, calculation, results, discussions, conclusions.
Introduction should explain the motivation and importance of the work avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Materials and methods Sufficient details have to be provided to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Thoughtful use of schemes and figures (with well-composed captions) is recommended, so that even casual browsers can discern the nature of the work. Well-known procedures should be designated by name, or literature references for them should be given. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis. Results should be clear and concise.
Discussion section should explore, not repeat, the significance of the results of the work. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid unnecessary citations and discussion of published literature.
Conclusions section should briefly summarize the main achievements of the work and a comprehensible explanation of their significance and relevance. Please do not make another abstract.
References. All the references must be placed together in a list at the end of the manuscript text. It is crucial that authors verify the accuracy of all reference citations. Unnecessarily long lists of references should be avoided, and excessive self-citation is not permitted. However, authors must reference all previous publications in which portions of the present work have appeared.
Appendices. If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Authors are required by the system to suggest the names and institutional e-mail addresses of minimum 3 maximum 5 potential reviewers. Authors may also request that specific people not be used as reviewers (Opposite Reviewers), and they may include reasons for such a request. These suggestions will be advisory to the Editors who retain the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.
A cover letter (Cover Letter A for Normal Papers and Cover Letter B for Open Access Papers) and a Copyright Transfer Agreement shall be filled-in and uploaded at the time you are uploading your paper. Please note that submission of both the above documents is mandatory and that your paper will not be processed if the cover letter and the copyright transfer agreement are not uploaded and completed in all their fields.
Before submitting, please make a final check of your submission to ensure that the following items have been provided:
- Cover letter has been duly completed
- Copyright Transfer Agreement has been duly signed
- All figures and related captions are included
- Keywords are included in the manuscript
- All tables including titles, footnotes etc. are included
- All references cited in the text match the References list
This journal operates a single blind review process. All manuscripts will be preliminary assessed by the Editors for suitability for the journal. Manuscripts considered by the Editors to be inappropriate for the journal may be declined without review.
Reasons for rejection without review may be:
i- Contents of paper outside the main scopes of the journal
ii- Very poor language preventing a reliable peer review process
iii- Excessive plagiarism (including self plagiarism)
iv- Not appropriate uploaded articles
Papers deemed suitable are submitted to one or more independent reviewers to assess the scientific/technical value of the work, the level of interest to the broad and diverse readership, the appropriateness of the literature citations, the clarity, conciseness of the writing, etc.
Reviewer/s comments and the decision will be returned to the author. There are four possible outcomes: a) Accept: the paper will be published without any revision. b) Minor revision: the author will be required to revise the paper according to reviewers’ comments and then return the revised paper to the Editor. The paper will be accepted at the Editor's discretion or returned to the reviewer for a final check. c) Major revision: the author will be required to significantly revise the paper according to reviewers’ comments and then return the revised paper to the Editor. The paper will then undergo another round of refereeing. d) Reject: the paper will not be published. Editor’s decision is final.
The resubmission of manuscripts previously considered and declined for publication in the journal is discouraged and will only be considered under extraordinary circumstances. Well reasoned appeals of decisions may be considered.
Manuscripts may be retracted for scientific or ethical reasons. Manuscripts that contain seriously flawed or erroneous data such that their findings and conclusions cannot be relied upon, may be retracted in order to correct the scientific record. Retractions may be requested by the manuscript author(s) or by the journal Editor(s), but are ultimately published at the discretion of the Editor.
The corresponding author of an accepted manuscript will receive e-mail notification and complete instructions when page proofs are available for review. The PDF proof made available for review is of publication quality so that authors may see a true representation of both the text and the graphics prior to publication. Page proofs should be checked carefully against the manuscript (in particular, all tables, figures, captions, equations, and formulas, as well as clarity of the graphics), and the corrections should be returned as soon as possible. No paper is released for publication until the author’s changes have been made or the author’s approval has been received. Authors should not request that their page proofs be held for an extended period of time. Manuscripts for which page proofs are not returned in a timely manner will be withdrawn from publication. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that all authors listed on the manuscript agree with the changes made on the proofs.
The corresponding author will receive a notice shortly after publication via email. It’s the corresponding author’s duty to inform other co-authors of the same. The corresponding author will receive a complimentary PDF of the paper as soon as published .
Possible publication errors
Although proofs have been made before publishing a manuscript, it is still possible that some errors are found in the published version. Any change, especially one to manuscript title and authors’ information, is not allowed unless the change is about spelling or due to the negligence of the editorial team. Corresponding author should report an error as soon as it is found.